Programming Languages

As a hacker, you’ll often be elbow-deep in code. Whether performing an audit to find vulnerabilities, tweaking an exploit to work with a specific target, or writing a new Remote-Access Trojan (RAT) to take over a system, you need to know how to read and write a variety of programming languages.

At a minimum, you should be familiar with a general-purpose, cross-platform programming language like Python, as well as the fundamentals necessary to write shell scripts for various OSes. Fortunately, there are plenty of free resources online where you can learn the basics:


The remainder of this guide is written with the assumption that the reader is familiar with programming concepts and languages. The art of computer programming is so vast and complex that an in-depth discussion is beyond the scope of this guide.